A longitudinal study of masters swimmers’ commitment

Bradleyw. Young *, Matthew E. Piamonte *, J. Robert Grove ** and Nikola Medic ***

(*) University of Ottawa Ottawa, Canada
(**) The University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia
(***) Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia


Young, B., E. Piamonte, M., Robert Grove, J., Medic, N. (2011). A longitudinal study of masters swimmers’ commitment. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 42(5), 436-460.


Using the Sport Commitment Model (SCM; Scanlan et al., 2003; Wilson et al., 2004) as a conceptual framework, we surveyed 190 international-level Masters swimmers (91 m, 99 f; M age = 51.9 yrs; range = 26-80) on two occasions, one year apart. We used repeated measures ANOVAs (Analysis 1) and hierarchical regression analyses (Analysis 2) to examine which SCM determinants predicted changes in functional commitment (FC) and obligatory commitment (OC) for all swimmers, and as a function of age. Analysis 1 revealed that groups increasing in enjoyment/ satisfaction, personal investments, and involvement opportunities had increased FC, while groups decreasing in enjoyment/satisfaction had decreased FC (ps < .01). Analysis 2 demonstrated that FC was predicted by enjoyment/ satisfaction (B = .76, p < .05), and that age moderated the determinant relationships for personal investments (.01), involvement opportunities (-.03) and social constraints (.02), Adj R2 = .39, p < .001). Analysis 2 also showed that social support (B = -.37, p < .05), personal investments (.32) and involvement alternatives (.17) predicted OC irrespective of age, Adj R2 = .14, p < .001.

Keywords: Enjoyment, Masters athletes, Sport commitment, Swimming