Clivew. Reeves *, Adam R. Nicholls ** and Jim Mckenna *
(*) Leeds Metropolitan University, UK
(**) University of Hull, UK
Reeves, C., R. Nicholls, A., Mckenna, J. (2011). Longitudinal analyses of stressors, perceived control, coping, and coping effectiveness among early and middle adolescent soccer players. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 42(2), 186-203.
This longitudinal study compared stressors, perceived stressor control, coping strategies, and coping effectiveness among early and middle adolescent soccer players, across a competitive season. Fifty academy soccer players completed at least one booklet, of eight daily diaries, across four phases of a season. Diaries included a stressor checklist, a Likert-type scale of perceived stressor control, an open-ended coping response section, and a Likert-type scale of coping effectiveness. The results revealed subtle age differences as stressors such as receiving criticism and injury were much more prominent among the middle adolescents, whereas observing an opponent cheat was more salient among early adolescents. The frequency of stressors also fluctuated across the distinct phases of the season differently for the early and middle adolescents. Middle adolescents reported using more emotion-focused and avoidance coping strategies than early adolescents. Middle adolescents also coped significantly more effective than early adolescents.
Keywords: Adolescent, Chronological age, Longitudinal, Stress