Volume 45 - n. 1 - January-February 2014


What is self-control depleting in sports? Effects of vicarious experiences on performance

Chris Englert * and Alex Bertrams **

(*) Institute of Sports and Sports Sciences, Department of Sport Psychology, University of Heidelberg, Germany
(**) School of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, University of Mannheim, Germany

In the present study, we investigated the influence of sport specific vicarious depletion of self-control strength on performance in a Stroop task. In a betweensubject design N = 40 participants were randomly assigned to either a depletion condition in which they read a story about a soccer player who had to strongly regulate himself, or a non-depletion condition in which they read a story about a soccer player who did not have to regulate himself. Participants in both conditions were instructed to relive the soccer players’ thoughts and feelings and we hypothesized that in the depletion condition participants would perform worse in a subsequent self-control task. The results were as expected as depleted participants showed longer latencies on the Stroop task. This study delivers a first indication that athletes are confronted with self-control demanding situations during sporting competitions which can lead to a depletion of self-control strength and impaired performance.

Keywords: Ego Depletion, Self-Control, Self-regulation, Sport, Stroop



An investigation of a formalized mentoring program for novice basketball coaches

Koon Teck Koh *, Gordon A. Bloom **, Katherine E. Fairhurst **, Dominique M. Paiement ** and Ying Hwa Kee *

(*) Physical Education & Sports Science, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
(**) Department of Kinesiology and Physical Education, McGill University, Montreal, Canada

The purpose of the current study was to investigate a formalized mentoring program for novice basketball coaches, and to consider what factors that affect its to its effectiveness. Twelve purposefully selected mentors and 36 mentees who enrolled in an introductory coaching education course in Singapore participated in focus group interviews. Results indicated this program was a unique and positive learning experience for both the mentors and mentees. It helped the mentees become more competent and confident in their coaching style, knowledge, and behaviors. The program also enabled mentors to demonstrate useful pedagogical knowledge and skills, and to engage in meaningful self-reflection practices. All participants felt this program should be adopted by other sport associations in their country. Suggestions for improving the program were also forwarded.

Keywords: Career development, Coaching, Mentoring, Motivation, Self-determination theory



Target-directed and movement-directed instructions differently modulate the relationship between performance and perception

Rouwen CaƱal-Bruland, Kevin Kishna and Jonathan Van Ingen Schenau

MOVE Research Institute Amsterdam, Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, The Netherlands

When kicking a ball into a goal, those who hit more successfully estimate the goal to be bigger than those who hit less successfully. Recent evidence indicates that directing visual attention towards the target may be a prerequisite for the relationship between performance and target size to emerge. If true, then instructions directing visual attention to the target should affect this relationship differently than instructions directing attention towards movement execution. To test this, 28 participants performed a kicking task and afterwards estimated the size of the target in two instruction conditions: a target-directed instruction condition and a movement-directed instruction condition. Comparison of the correlation coefficients (number of successful hits by estimated target size) revealed a significant difference (Z = 2.168, p = .030) between the target-directed instructions (r = .248) and movement-directed instructions (r = -.141). Our results confirm that target-directed and movement-directed instructions differentially affect the relationship between performance and perceived target size.

Keywords: Attention, Instruction, Performance, Soccer, Visual perception



Body image dissatisfaction among 14-15 year old females in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Rodrigo Marques *, Monique Assis **, Geraldo A Maranhao Neto ***, Fabiana Resende **** and Alexandre Palma ****

(*) Universidade Gama Filho; Post-Graduate Program in Exercise and Sports Sciences, Rio de Janerio, RJ, Brazil
(**) Centro Universitàrio Augusto Motta; Department of Psychoogy, Rio de Janerio, RJ, Brazil
(***) Universidade Salgado de Oliveira; Post-Graduate Program in Physical Activity Sciences, São Gonçalo, RJ, Brazil
(****) Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Post-Graduate Program in Physical Education, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

OBJECTIVE: To observe the prevalence of dissatisfaction relating to body image among 14-15 year old females in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study on a sample of 1,083 students between the ages of 14 and 15 years. To evaluate body image satisfaction, the BSQ (Body Shape Questionnaire) was used. RESULTS: Regarding satisfaction with body image, the HDI (Human Development Index) of the school neighborhood, and the home, and the BMI of the school region were statistically significant. For the desire to reduce or gain body weight, there was statistical significance for the following variables: practice and duration of physical activity, informed BMI, use of cigarettes and diuretics. When analyzing the informed BMI together with the desire for weight change, dissatisfaction with self-image was found in all the categories compared. CONCLUSION: Dissatisfaction with self-image may easily arise during adolescence and is associated with factors such as body weight, physical activity and use of diuretics.

Keywords: Adolescent, Body image, Dissatisfaction



A case study of technical change and rehabilitation: intervention design and interdisciplinary team interaction

Howie J. Carson, Dave Collins and Bryan Jones

Institute of Coaching and Performance, University of Central Lancashire,UK

The design of effective interventions in sport psychology often requires a subtle blend of techniques, tailored to meet the client’s specific needs. Input from a variety of disciplinary support specialists, working as a team, is also frequently needed. Accordingly, this study investigated an interdisciplinary team approach to the technical change and rehabilitation of an elite weight lifter following injury; necessitating the avoidance of regression when performing under competitive pressure. Multiple coaching approaches were used and complimented by targeting specific mental skills. Kinematic analyses indicated progressive technical, and subsequently permanent, change even after 2 years. Self-report measures of self-efficacy and imagery use were deemed essential in facilitating the change. Finally, a discussion focuses on the intervention’s multifactorial nature, its application within high performance coaching, and how this may advise future research into the refinement of already existing and well-established skills.

Keywords: Elite performer, Motor imagery, Pressure resistance, Skill refinement