Alan. C. Macpherson *, Dave Collins **, Philip Graham-Smith *** and Anthony P. Turner *
(*) University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
(**) University of Central Lancashire, Preston , UK
(***) University of Salford, Salford, UK
The current study compared and contrasted the optimal regulation of stride patterns in the horizontal jumping events for 6 British athletes of international standard. Long jump and triple jump approach data were collected over a 3-year period in international and domestic competitions and considered against the distances achieved. Results suggest that on approach to the take-off board, the majority of athletes’ jumps of greater length (intra-athlete) are associated with a low variability, rhythmical footfall. Given the variable approach strategies used by the athletes in question, and consequently the theoretical implications the data set holds, tentative conclusions are drawn regarding the means by which scientists and coaches should assess and design suitable performance focused interventions for elite performers based on individual responses.
Keywords: Jumps, Performance Rhytmicity
Subha Ramanathan */** and Peter R.e. Crocker */**
(*) Faculty of Kinesiology & Physical Education, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
(**) School of Kinesiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
Behavioral models of physical activity have largely been developed with Caucasian populations but may be adapted for populations worldwide. This study tested a model of physical activity that focused on subjective perceptions, parental influences, and cultural values with adolescents in Chennai, India. Two hundred and eighteen participants (mean age 15.3) from an English-based private school completed a questionnaire. Results showed that physical activity levels were moderate and similar to North American youth, with boys reporting higher levels than girls. Gender differences were also seen in activity types, attraction, and some cultural values, but not in perceptions of competence, self-esteem or parental influence. Parental influence and cultural values did not enhance the prediction of physical activity by subjective perceptions. Future research with Indian youth should examine companions and orientations, distinguish between various aspects of parental influence, and further explore cultural values in relation to physical activity participation.
Keywords: Adolescent physical activity, Cultural values, Parental influence, Subjective perceptions
Karine Corrion *, Christophe Gernigon **, Nadine Debois *** and Fabienne D’Arripe-Longueville *
(*) University of Nice Sophia-Antipolis, France
(**) Southern France Montpellier University
(***) National Institute of Sport, Expertise and Performance, Paris, France
The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the Resistive Self-Regulatory Efficacy in Sport Scale (RSRESS) in a French sample. The instrument was developed on the basis of the literature (Bandura et al., 1996). A series of four complementary studies was carried out with a total sample of 1306 athletes. In the first study, a preliminary version was developed and its clarity was evaluated. The initial factorial analysis identified a one-factor model with good internal consistency. The second study confirmed the factorial structure of the instrument and showed its partial invariance across genders. The third study demonstrated the temporal stability of the RSRESS. In the fourth study, the expected relationships between the RSRESS and both moral disengagement and affective self-regulatory efficacy (Bandura et al., 2001, 2003) were found, supporting the construct validity of the instrument. The RSRESS thus presents satisfactory psychometric properties and constitutes a reliable and valid instrument for developing future research on the role of self-regulatory efficacy in moral issues.
Keywords: Invariance, Self-regulatory efficacy, Social pressure, Sport, Validation
Ariane Bélanger-Gravel */**, Gaston Godin */***, Andrea Bilodeau */****, Paul Poirier */***** and Gilles R. Dagenais */****
(*) Université Laval, Quebec, Canada
(**) Department of Social and Preventive Medicine
(***) Canada Research Chair on Behaviour and Health, Faculty of Nursing
(****) Faculty of Nursing
(*****) Department of Cardiology, Centre de recherche de l’Institute de Cardiologie et Pneumologie
The aim of this study was to elicit physical activity beliefs among overweight/ obese older adults. Using open-ended questions, standardized interviews were conducted among 30 participants to document their behavioral, normative and control beliefs based on the theory of planned behavior. A content analysis revealed that the most salient behavioral beliefs (benefits) concerned improvement in fitness, psychological wellbeing and cardiovascular and joint-related health. The most prevalent disadvantages involved the obligation to remain disciplined over time, joint pain and injury. Normative beliefs were associated with the familial environment. Time management, exercising alone, the weather and health problems represented the major control beliefs (barriers). Facilitating factors mentioned most often included noticing the benefits, integrating physical activity into the daily routine and access to nearby infrastructures. This study provided useful information to develop interventions that may prove better adapted to this population.
Keywords: Health, Obesity, Physical activity
Lee Crust, Hannah Henderson and Geoff Middleton
School of Sport and Exercise Science, The University of Lincoln, UK
Within the theoretical framework of positive psychology, the effects of single sessions of low to moderate intensity walking on markers of psychological health were studied in two different green exercise environments. Participants were 83 recreational walkers (M age = 62.91, s = 9.33) who completed questionnaires to measure self-esteem and affective states before and after either an urban green or countryside walk. A questionnaire concerning enjoyment of physical activity was completed post-walk. Significant increases in positive affect (p =.02) and decreases in negative affect (p = .004) followed walk completion. Significant increases in selfesteem were found (p =.01), with countryside walkers reporting significantly higher post-walk self-esteem than urban green walkers. Significantly higher levels of enjoyment (p =.04) were reported by countryside walkers. This is potentially an important finding since enjoyment is an important determinant of adherence.
Keywords: Affect, Enjoyment, Positive psychology, Self-esteem