Volume 44 - n. 1 - January-February 2013


Organizational stress in professional soccer coaches

Daniel J. A. Rhind *, Michael Scott ** and David Fletcher **

(*) Brunel University, London, United Kingdom
(**) Loughborough University, United Kingdom

In this study, we explored the organizational stressors experienced by professional soccer coaches. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 first-team coaches who worked in the top 4 leagues of English soccer. Inductive content analysis revealed that stress was experienced in relation to 8 higher-order themes. Specifically, coaches identified stressors associated with: job role (i.e., lack of time, qualifications, low salary); players (i.e., complaining, injuries, counseling, disruptive behaviors, lack of respect, managing egos, reliance on performance); manager (i.e., autocratic decision-making, giving support, lack of respect); support staff (i.e., lack of staff, lack of quality, physio injury reports); training environment (i.e., poor facilities, poor equipment); away matches (i.e., long journeys, travel delays, disruptions at the team hotel); governance (i.e., job security, selling players without consultation, being told how to do things, lack of infrastructure, lack of transfer funds) and soccer culture (i.e., the results business, fans, media pressure). The findings provide an in-depth insight into professional soccer coaches’ stress experiences and have important practical implications for stakeholders in professional soccer.

Keywords: Association Football, Director, Manager, Stressors, Trainer



Investigating general and self-expectations regarding aging in a physical activity context

Cassandra R. Sparks *, Brad A. Meisner ** and Bradley W. Young *

(*) University of Ottawa, Canada
(**) Ryerson University, Canada

Considering how low overall aging expectations constrain various other health-promoting behaviours in adults (Levy, 2003), we examined whether general aging expectations and aging self-expectations differentially influence physical activity (PA). In a cross-sectional design, 167 moderately physically active adults aged 45-74 years completed ERA-38 (Sarkisian, Hays, & Mangione, 2002) and GLTEQ (Godin & Shephard, 1985) surveys. Separate factor analyses examined the validity of general aging expectation (GAE) and aging self-expectation (ASE) items, and multivariate analyses examined their associations with PA. Results indicated the emergence of three GAE (Satisfaction/Contentment, Physical Function, Cognitive Function) and three ASE sub-factors (Functional Health, Social Health, Sexual Function). More active adults had higher Cognitive Function (p < .05) and Satisfaction/Contentment (p = .06) expectations than less active adults. Regression analyses by age group (45-54; 55-64; 65-74) showed Physical Function (β = .36) and Satisfaction/Contentment (β = .30) explained current PA only for 45-54 yearolds. Findings endorse and expand upon ERA-38 trends in the context of PA by showing that certain negative aging expectations constrain current weekly PA among adults.

Keywords: Adults, Age stereotypes, Aging expectations, Exercise, Physical activity



The dose-response relationship between resistance exercise intensity and cognitive performance: Does heart rate mediate this effect?

Yu-Kai Chang * and Jennifer L. Etnier **

(*) National Taiwan Sport University, Taiwan
(**) University of North Carolina at Greensboro, USA

The purpose of this study was to test heart rate (HR) as a potential mediator of the relationship between resistance exercise and cognition by analyzing data collected in Chang and Etnier (2009b). Mediation analyses were conducted to test the mediating role of HR in the relationship between exercise intensity and performance on the Stroop Test. The results indicated that the change in HR from rest to immediately prior to the cognitive task was a significant mediator of the relationship between exercise intensity and performance on the Stroop Color Word condition. Although the data support one of the HR measures as a mediator of the relationship, the general failure of the HR measures assessed during exercise to mediate the relationships suggests that other mediators may be important.

Keywords: Acute exercise, Cognitive function, Exercise-induced arousal, Mediation analysis



Changes in Self-Efficacy and Affect during a 15-week Marathon training program

Ashley Samson *, Melinda Solmon ** and Laura Stewart **

(*) California State University, Northridge, Northridge, CA, USA
(**) Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA

Current research in physical activity suggests that self-efficacy and affective variables are related to one another; however, the manner in which these variables change and affect each other over time has not been fully explored. This is important because individuals who participate in activities within the physical activity domain usually do so over a prolonged period of time. The purpose of this study was to explore changes in self-efficacy and affect during a marathon training program. Repeated measures ANOVA analyses revealed a significant increase in self-efficacy over the training period, while positive affect showed a significant decrease. No significant change was found for negative affect. In terms of predictive relationships, negative affect significantly predicted the subsequent week’s self-efficacy rating for five of the thirteen weeks. This implies that self-efficacy can be influenced by negative affect; therefore actions aimed at reducing negative affect can lead to subsequent increases in self-efficacy levels.

Keywords: Affect, Distance running, Longitudinal study, Self-efficacy



Exercise goals as predictors of body image concerns, Social Physique Anxiety and Legal Supplement Use among fitness center exercisers

Rasa Jankauskiene * and Brigita Mieziene */**

(*) Department of Health, Social and Physical Education, Lithuanian Sports University, Lithuania
(**) Department of Theoretical Psychology, Vytautas Magnus University, Lithuania

This study examined how exercise goals predicted body image concerns and the use of supplements in a sample of Lithuanian fitness center exercisers of both genders. Fitness exercisers (N=238) completed questionnaires measuring exercising goals, body image (BI), social physique anxiety (SPA) and the use of muscle gain (MGS) and weight loss (WLS) supplements. Regression analyses showed that appearance goals of exercising were associated with higher BI concerns and SPA. Relatively intrinsic exercise goals (interest/enjoyment, fitness, and competence) were not associated or negatively associated with BI and SPA. Relatively intrinsic social interaction goals were associated with higher BI and SPA. No differences in BI and SPA between MGS and WLS users versus nonusers were found. Women WLS users demonstrated higher overweight preoccupation. Relatively intrinsic fitness goals were associated with lower MGS use. Competence goals were associated with higher MGS use. Results highlight the importance of understanding the motives of goals and fostering self-determined motivation when preventing body image concerns among exercisers.

Keywords: Body image concerns, Food supplement use, Self-determination