A comparison of locomotor pointing strategies in Cricket Bowling and Long Jumping


* New Zealand Institute of Sport and Recreation Research, Division of Sport and Recreation, Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand
** School of Human Movement Studies, Queensland University of Technology, Australia

Previous work on locomotor pointing control during run-ups in sports has revealed the importance of visual regulation strategies, although most existing research has been conducted under a limited range of task constraints, mainly in the athletic jumps. The aim of this position paper is to extend understanding of control mechanisms by comparing research on locomotor pointing strategies under task constraints of long jumping and cricket bowling. An interesting question is whether differences in visual regulation strategies arise from differences in nested task constraints and availability of vertical reference information at the end of the run-up. Evidence suggests that long jumpers and bowlers use a prospective control strategy in approach runs, although the unique task constraints of both sports shape run-up strategies. In long jumpers, it has been shown that step adjustments can occur as and when needed by performers to ensure hitting the take-off board. In cricketers, a traditional inter-trial analysis revealed that despite a high level of variability in initiation points, due to the implementation of two visual regulation phases early and late in the run-up, bowlers seem able to reduce variability of footfall placement at the bound step to the same very low levels as long jumpers. A subsequent trial-by-trial analysis highlighted that bowlers spread adjustments of step length over the whole run-up and made adjustments only when needed and for as long as necessary. Data suggest that nested task constraints and the availability of vertical reference information at the end of run-ups in sport constrain implementation of gait regulation strategies. Ongoing research is needed to specify the nature of the perceptual variables used to guide locomotion in the cricket and long jump run-ups.

Soccer players' preseason perceptions of their knowledge and application of sport psychology: An action research screening study


Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, Molde University College, Norway

The main purpose of this preliminary, small-scale study was to screen the perceptions of a sample of 25 male professional soccer players with regard to their knowledge of, awareness of and application of sport psychology. A questionnaire covering16 items, including four items based on match situation scenarios, was administered to the players. On average, the players reported to have limited knowledge of sport psychology measured by former reading and education. Apart from tactical task focusing, only a minority of the players applied other specific approaches from sport psychology. Former education in, and in particular having read literature on sport psychology showed a positive relationship with the employment of coping strategies before and during matches. Methodological limitations of this study and suggestions for future research are discussed.

Personal and situational predictors of sportspersonship in young athletes


*University of Nice Sophia-Antipolis, France **Purdue University, USA

The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of personal (goal orientation, perceived ability) and situational (perceived motivational climate, peer acceptance) variables to prediction of sportspersonship in young athletes and to assess whether strength of contribution varied by developmental group. Child (n = 163, ages 8-10 years) and adolescent (n = 158, ages 13-15 years) boys from judo clubs completed a multi-section questionnaire containing measures of study variables. Hierarchical multiple regression results showed that: a) younger participants report higher sportspersonship than older participants, b) higher task goal orientation associates with higher sportspersonship, and c) higher perceptions of the promotion of learning by parents and by peers associate with higher sportspersonship. Though significant change in R2 was obtained with the addition of age by personal/situational variable interaction terms to the regression model, beta coefficients did not support a priori developmental hypotheses. Overall, the findings suggest that personal and situational variables make unique contributions to prediction of sportspersonship.

Gender and physical activity level differences in physical self-perception of university students: A case of Turkey


*Kırıkkkale University, School of Physical Education and sport,Turkey **Bas¸kent University, Sport Sciences Department, Turkey

The primary purpose of the present study was to examine the physical self-perceptions of Turkish university students with regard to gender and physical activity levels. Secondly, the study aimed to examine the most important physical self-perception variables in the prediction of physical activity participation. 466 male (Mage=21.13, SD=2.08 years) and 419 female (Mage=20.75, SD=1.60 years) university students volunteered to participate in this study. The Physical Self-Perception Profile and Physical Activity Assessment Questionnaire were administered to participants. 2 x 2 (Female/Male x High/Low Physical Activity Group) MANOVA revealed significant gender and physical activity group differences in physical selfperceptions in favour of males and high physical activity groups, respectively (p<.01). Univariate analysis of variance revealed that physical activity scores were significantly higher in males. Perceived physical condition and the perceived sport competence were the most important discriminators of physical activity levels for males and females respectively.

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