Does running a first marathon influence general self-efficacy and positive orientation?

Anna Gorczyca *, Tomasz Jankowski ** and Piotr Oles ***

(*) State Development Bank of Poland
(**) Institute of Psychology, John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Poland
(***) Faculty of Psychology, SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities Poland


Gorczyca, A., Jankowski, T., Oles, P. (2016). Does running a first marathon influence general self-efficacy and positive orientation?. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 47(5), 466-482. doi:10.7352/IJSP.2016.47.466


The aim of this study was to measure the potential increase in general self-efficacy (GSE) and positive orientation (PO) in the context of a first marathon run. Self-efficacy and positive orientation, defined as a general tendency to evaluate self, life and future in a positive way were measured at three time points: at the beginning of preparation, just after completing the marathon, and two months after completing the marathon. Eighty adults (23 women) completed the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES; Schwarzer & Jerusalem, 1995) and Positivity Scale (PS; Caprara et al., 2012). A latent trajectory model was used to test the hypothesis that self-efficacy and PO would be higher immediately after the marathon and two months later than at the start of preparation. The marathon had a significant effect only in women. Slopes indicating rates of change in self-efficacy and PO were also correlated. The second autoregressive model suggested that PO was a causal factor in changes in GSE over time. Results are discussed in the light of relevant contemporary literature.

Keywords: Marathon, Positive orientation, Self-efficacy