Integrating Sports Psychology into a human factors framework

Rosemarie Reynolds * and Eduardo Salas **

(*) Embry Riddle Aeronautical University, USA
(**) Institute for Simulation and Training, USA


Reynolds, R., Salas, E. (2016). Integrating Sports Psychology into a human factors framework. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 47(3), 224-238. doi:10.7352/IJSP.2016.47.224


The emergence of cross-disciplinary research among the many sub disciplines of psychology is an encouraging trend. In sports psychology alone, the discoveries made in areas such as stress and performance, emotional and cognitive states, and situations could be of immense use to teams in both military and industrial contexts. However, while an abundance of work is being done on sports, sports teams, and teamwork, an integrative framework for this plethora of research is missing. We suggest that one of the greatest contributions that human factors research could provide to sports psychology is such an integrative theoretical framework. Therefore, after defining the key constructs used in this paper, we present the Input- Process-Emergent States-Outcome model. In order to demonstrate the usefulness of this model, we provide examples of research from sports psychology.

Keywords: Coordination, Implicit coordination, Teams, Team cognition, Team work