Closeness, co-orientation and complementarity in the coach-athlete relationship.The perception of the relationship of male swimmers with their male coaches
ROBERTA ANTONINI PHILIPPE * and ROLAND SEILER **
* Scuola universitaria Federale dello Sport, Macolin, Switzerland
** University of Bern, Switzerland
Objectives: The aim of this study was to study the quality of the coach-athlete relationship. Utilising the three interpersonal construct of closeness, co-orientation, and complementarity . When the "honeymoon" is over, a case study dyad in crisis.The case study of a coach-athlete relationship in married coupples :an exploratory content analysys as a framework to guide our exploration , athletes'perceptions of the relationship quality with their coaches were explored.
Method: Participants were five male swimmer from the Swiss national swimming team, all five athletes held international titles and were preparing for the 2004 Olympic Games. A semi-structured interview schedule was employed to obtain qualitative data, The response of the athletes were content analysed.
Results: The results show that the coach-athlete relationship plays an important role for the swimmers investigated. The relationship comprised essential coach-athlete relationship (closeness), communication and setting of objective/ goals (co-orientation) , as well as acceptance and respect of roles (complementarity). It was revealed that swimmers placed great importance in maintaining good relations with their coach.
Conclusion: The content analysis has highlighted the nature of the coach-athlete relationship in a orientation and complementarity. The type of relationship formes as reported from the male athletes was personal and caring, and played a central role improving performance. Theoretical considerations and difficulties on classifying some 10% of the responses lead to the conclusion that, from a conceptual point of view, the construct have to be re-examined.
The learning process in the child. Apilot study of practice distribution.
MARINELLA COCO, RITA NICOTRA, LINO GURRISI, VALENTINA PERCIAVALLE
University of Catania, Italy
The learning process, which begins from the first moments of life, can be defined as a set of information and experiences that the brain gradually gains and stored , thus becoming able to adapting itself to environmental needs.
However , if we can ask our ourselves what happens during the learning and what is the best way to learn we can only respond that there are different kinds of learning and diverse ways to acquire new informations.
The goal of this paper was to evaluate the dynamics of human learning in the age between 6 and 10 years , by using various modes of practice distribution.
Physical exercise, eating disorders and psychological characteristics
AGATA TORO*, CALOGERO LILIANA INDELICATO**, ROSARIO GIUFFRIDA*, DONATELLA DI CORRADO***
* University of Catania, Italy
*** KORE University of Enna, Italy
Sport is increasingly known and promoted as a natural method of support to health , both in terms of prevention and intervention to reduce many physical, psychological and social problems. Nevertheless, it may also become an osession harmful to health as demonstrated by a large number of cases of what is commonly called, though sometimes inappropriately, "Sport dependence".
The purpose of this study was to investigate how people attending gyms live their pphysical activity amd their approach to food, making a comparison between men and women as for their psychological characteristics, The study was was carried out on 81 boys and 74 girls with the administration of five questionnaire : Eating Attitude Test-26(EAT-26),Multidimensional Test of Self-Esteem Questionnaire of Interpersonal Adaptation (QAI), Worry- Emotionality scalke (W-E),Self Efficacy.
Results obtained corroborate the hypothesis that the predisposition to low body self-esteem leads to increase the physical activity and the attitude to make use of integrators to improve the body response to exercise. Unsurprisingly enough, it was found that integrators are more frequently used by men, although many women referred the use of them.
Nonetheless, both men and women are strongly concerned for the appearance of their body, and particularly interested to development of their muscles. It is worth nothing that the subjects claimed to use just supplements rather than anabolic steroids, but these answer do not seem quite correct because of their physical characteristics, apparently indicating the use of anabolic steroids. Psychological features resulting from the administration of questionnaires are also correlated with age, time spent in gyms, food habits and drug taking.